Monday, February 18


Dalam Case Concerning East Timor (Portugal vs. Australia), Mahkamah Internasional (ICJ) menetapkan 4 kriteria sengketa yaitu:
  • Didasarkan pada kriteria-kriteria objektif. Maksudnya adalah dengan melihat fakta-fakta yang ada. Contoh: Kasus penyerbuan Amerika Serikat dan Inggris ke Irak
  • Tidak didasarkan pada argumentasi salah satu pihak. Contoh: USA vs. Iran 1979 (Iran case). Dalam kasus ini Mahkamah Internasional dalam mengambil putusan tidak hanya berdasarkan argumentasi dari Amerika Serikat, tetapi juga Iran.
  • Penyangkalan mengenai suatu peristiwa atau fakta oleh salah satu pihak tentang adanya sengketa tidak dengan sendirinya membuktikan bahwa tidak ada sengketa. Contoh: Case Concerning the Nothern Cameroons 1967 (Cameroons vs. United Kingdom). Dalam kasus ini Inggris menyatakan bahwa tidak ada sengketa antara Inggris dan Kamerun, bahkan Inggris mengatakan bahwa sengketa tersebut terjadi antara Kamerun dan PBB. Dari kasus antara Inggris dan Kamerun ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa bukan para pihak yang bersengketa yang memutuskan ada tidaknya sengketa, tetapi harus diselesaikan/diputuskan oleh pihak ketiga.
  • Adanya sikap yang saling bertentangan/berlawanan dari kedua belah pihak yang bersengketa.Contoh: Case Concerning the Applicability of the Obligation to Arbitrate under section 21 of the United Nations Headquarters agreement of 26 June 1947.
  •   Penyelesaian Sengketa secara Diplomatik dan Damai
Prinsip-Prinsip Penyelesaian Sengketa Secara Damai adalah:
1. Prinsip itikad baik (good faith);
2. Prinsip larangan penggunaan kekerasan dalam penyelesaian sengketa;
3. Prinsip kebebasan memilih cara-cara penyelesaian sengketa;
4. Prinsip kebebasan memilih hukum yang akan diterapkan terhadap pokok sengketa;
5. Prinsip kesepakatan para pihak yang bersengketa (konsensus);
6. Prinsip penggunaan terlebih dahulu hukum nasional negara untuk menyelesaikan suatu sengketa prinsip exhaustion of local remedies);
7. Prinsip-prinsip hukum internasional tentang kedaulatan, kemerdekaan, dan integritas wilayah negara-negara.
Disamping ketujuh prinsip di atas, Office of the Legal Affairs PBB memuat prinsip-prinsip lain yang bersifat tambahan, yaitu:
1. Prinsip larangan intervensi baik terhadap masalah dalam atau luar negeri para pihak;
2. Prinsip persamaan hak dan penentuan nasib sendiri;
3. Prinsip persamaan kedaulatan negara-negara;
4. Prinsip kemerdekaan dan hukum internasional.
Penyelesaian Sengketa secara Diplomatik
Seperti yang telah dijelaskan di atas, yang termasuk ke dalam penyelesaian sengketa secara diplomatik adalah negosiasi; enquiry atau penyelidikan; mediasi; konsiliasi; dan good offices atau jasa-jasa baik. Kelima metode tersebut memiliki ciri khas, kelebihan, dan kekurangan masing-masing.
A. Negosiasi
Negosiasi adalah perundingan yang dilakukan secara langsung antara para pihak dengan tujuan untuk menyelesaikan sengketa melalui dialog tanpa melibatkan pihak ketiga. Negosiasi merupakan cara penyelesaian sengketa yang paling dasar dan paling tuas digunakan oleh umat manusia. Pasal 33 ayat (1) Piagam PBB menempatkan negosiasi sebagai cara pertama dalam menyelesaikan sengketa.
Perundingan merupakan pertukaran pandangan dan usul-usul antara dua pihak untuk menyelesaikan suatu persengketaan, jadi tidak melibatkan pihak ketiga.
Segi positif/kelebihan dari negosiasi adalah:
1. Para pihak sendiri yang menyelesaikan kasus dengan pihak lainnya;
2. Para pihak memiliki kebebasan untuk menentukan bagaimana cara penyelesaian melalui negosiasi dilakukan menurut kesepakatan bersama;
3. Para pihak mengawasi atau memantau secara langsung prosedur penyelesaian;
4. Negosiasi menghindari perhatian publik dan tekanan politik dalam negeri.
Segi negatif/kelemahan dari negosiasi adalah:
• Negosiasi tidak pernah akan tercapai apabila salah satu pihak berpendirian keras;
• Negosiasi menutup kemungkinan keikutsertaan pihak ketiga, artinya kalau salah satu pihak berkedudukan lemah tidak ada pihak yang membantu.
Penyelesaian sengketa ini dilakukan secara langsung oleh para pihak yang bersengketa melalui dialog tanpa ada keikutsertaan dari pihak ketiga. Dalam pelaksanaannya, negosiasi memiliki dua bentuk utama, yaitu bilateral dan multilateral. Negosiasi dapat dilangsungkan melalui saluran diplomatik pada konferensi internasional atau dalam suatu lembaga atau organisasi internasional.
Negosiasi merupakan cara penyelesaian sengketa secara damai yang cukup lama dipakai. Sampai pada permulaan abad ke-20, negosiasi menjadi satu-satunya cara yang dipakai dalam penyelesaian sengketa. Sampai saat ini cara penyelesaian melalui negosiasi biasanya adalah cara yang pertama kali ditempuh oleh para pihak yang bersengketa.
Penyelesaian sengketa ini dilakukan secara langsung oleh para pihak yang bersengketa melalui dialog tanpa ada keikutsertaan dari pihak ketiga. Dalam pelaksanaannya, negosiasi memiliki dua bentuk utama, yaitu bilateral dan multilateral. Negosiasi dapat dilangsungkan melalui saluran diplomatik pada konferensi internasional atau dalam suatu lembaga atau organisasi internasional.
Dalam praktek negosiasi, ada dua bentuk prosedur yang dibedakan. Yang pertama adalah negosiasi ketika sengketa belum muncul, lebih dikenal dengan konsultasi. Dan yang kedua adalah negosiasi ketika sengketa telah lahir.
Keuntungan yang diperoleh ketika negara yang bersengketa menggunakan mekanisme negosiasi, antara lain :
(1) Para pihak memiliki kebebasan untuk menentukan penyelesaian sesuai dengan kesepakatan diantara mereka
(2) Para pihak mengawasi dan memantau secara langsung prosedur penyelesaiannya
(3) Dapat menghindari perhatian publik dan tekanan politik dalam negeri.
(4) Para pihak mencari penyelesaian yang bersifat win-win solution, sehingga dapat diterima dan memuaskan kedua belah pihak
B. Enquiry atau Penyelidikan
J.G.Merrills menyatakan bahwa salah satu penyebab munculnya sengketa antar negara adalah karena adanya ketidaksepakatan para pihak mengenai fakta. Untuk menyelesaikan sengketa ini, akan bergantung pada penguraian fakta-fakta para pihak yang tidak disepakati. Untuk menyelesaikan sengketa tersebut, para pihak kemudian membentuk sebuah badan yang bertugas untuk menyelidiki fakta-fakta yang terjadi di lapangan. Fakta-fakta yang ditemukan ini kemudian dilaporakan kepada para pihak, sehingga para pihak dapat menyelesaikan sengketa diantara mereka.
Dalam beberapa kasus, badan yang bertugas untuk menyelidiki fakta-fakta dalam sengketa internasional dibuat oleh PBB. Namun dalam konteks ini, enquiry yang dimaksud adalah sebuah badan yang dibentuk oleh negara yang bersengketa. Enquiry telah dikenal sebagai salah satu cara untuk menyelesaikan sengketa internasional semenjak lahirnya The Hague Convention pada tahun 1899, yang kemudian diteruskan pada tahun 1907.

C. Mediasi

Melibatkan pihak ketiga (third party) yang dipilih oleh para pihak yang bersengketa. Pihak ketiga dapat berupa individu atau kelompok (individual or group), negara atau kelompok negara atau organisasi internasional.
Dalam mediasi, negara ketiga bukan hanya sekedar mengusahakan agar para pihak yang bersengketa saling bertemu, tetapi juga mengusahakan dasar-dasar perundingan dan ikut aktif dalam perundingan,
contoh: mediasi yang dilakukan oleh Komisi Tiga Negara (Australia, Amerika, Belgia) yang dibentuk oleh PBB pada bulan Agustus 1947 untuk mencari penyelesaian sengketa antara Indonesia dan Belanda dan juga mediasi yang dilakukan oleh Presiden Jimmy Carter untuk mencari penyelesaian sengketa antara Israel dan Mesir hingga menghasilkan Perjanjian Camp David 1979. Dengan demikian, dalam mediasi pihak ketiga terlibat secara aktif (more active and actually takes part in the negotiation).
Mediasi biasanya dilakukan oleh pihak ketiga ketika pihak yang bersengketa tidak menemukan jalan keluar dalam penyelesaian suatu masalah.Maka pihak ketiga merupakan salah satu jalan keluar dari jalan buntu perundingan yang telah terjadi dan memberikan solusi yang dapat diterima oleh kedua belah pihak. Seorang mediator harus netral (tidak memihak salah satu pihak yang bersengketa) dan independen. Dalam menjalankan tugasnya, mediator tidak terikat pada suatu hukum acara tertentu dan tidak dibatasi pada hukum yang ada. Mediator dapat menggunakan asas ex aequo et bono untuk menyelesaikan sengketa yang ada.
Ketika negara-negara yang menjadi para pihak dalam suatu sengketa internasional tidak dapat menemukan pemecahan masalahnya melalui negosiasi, intervensi yang dilakukan oleh pihak ketiga adalah sebuah cara yang mungkin untuk keluar dari jalan buntu perundingan yang telah terjadi dan memberikan solusi yang dapat diterima oleh kedua belah pihak. Pihak ketiga yang melaksanakan mediasi ini tentu saja harus bersifat netral dan independen. Sehingga dapat memberikan saran yang tidak memihak salah satu negara pihak sengketa.
Intervensi yang dilakukan oleh pihak ketiga ini dapat dilakukan dalam beberapa bentuk. Misalnya, pihak ketiga memberikan saran kepada kedua belah pihak untuk melakukan negosiasi ulang, atau bisa saja pihak ketiga hanya menyediakan jalur komunikasi tambahan.
Pelaksanaan mediasi dalam penyelesaian sengketa internasional diatur dalam beberapa perjanjian internasional, antara lain The Hague Convention 1907; UN Charter; The European Convention for the Peaceful Settlement of Disputes.


D. Konsiliasi
Sama seperti mediasi, penyelesaian sengketa melalui cara konsiliasi menggunakan intervensi pihak ketiga. Pihak ketiga yang melakukan intervensi ini biasanya adalah negara, namun bisa juga sebuah komisi yang dibentuk oleh para pihak. Komisi konsiliasi yang dibentuk oleh para pihak dapat saja terlembaga atau bersifat ad hoc, yang kemudian memberikan persyaratan penyelesaian yang diterima oleh para pihak. Namun keputusan yang diberikan oleh komisi konsiliasi ini tidak mengikat para pihak.
Proses penyelesaian sengketa melalui konsiliasi mempunyai kemiripan dengan mediasi. Pembedaan yang dapat diketahui dari kedua cara ini adalah konsiliasi memiliki hukum acara yang lebih formal jika dibandingkan dengan mediasi. Karena dalam konsiliasi ada beberapa tahap yang biasanya harus dilalui, yaitu penyerahan sengketa kepada komisi konsiliasi, kemudian komisi akan mendengarkan keterangan lisan para pihak, dan berdasarkan fakta-fakta yang diberikan oleh para pihak secara lisan tersebut komisi konsiliasi akan menyerahkan laporan kepada para pihak disertai dengan kesimpulan dan usulan penyelesaian sengketa.
Konsiliasi merupakan suatu cara penyelesaian sengketa oleh suatu organ yang dibentuk sebelumnya atau dibentuk kemudian atas kesepakatan para pihak yang bersengketa. Organ yang dibentuk tersebut mengajukan usul-usul penyelesaian kepada para pihak yang bersengketa (to the ascertain the facts and suggesting possible solution). Rekomendasi yang diberikan oleh organ tersebut tidak bersifat mengikat (the recommendation of the commission is not binding).
Contoh dari konsiliasi adalah pada sengketa antara Thailand dan Perancis, kedua belah pihak sepakat untuk membentuk Komisi Konsiliasi. Dalam kasus ini Thailand selalu menuntut sebagian dari wilayah Laos dan Kamboja yang terletak di bagian Timur tapal batasnya. Karena waktu itu Laos dan Kamboja adalah protektorat Perancis maka sengketa ini menyangkut antara Thailand dan Perancis.
e. Good Offices atau Jasa-jasa Baik
Jasa-jasa baik adalah cara penyelesaian sengketa melalui bantuan pihak ketiga. Pihak ketiga berupaya agar para pihak yang bersengketa menyelesaikan sengketanya dengan negosiasi. Menurut pendapat Bindschedler, yang dikutip oleh Huala Adolf, jasa baik dapat didefinisikan sebagai berikut: the involvement of one or more States or an international organization in a dispute between states with the aim of settling it or contributing to its settlement.
Pada pelaksanaan di lapangan, jasa baik dapat dibedakan dalam dua bentuk, yaitu jasa baik teknis (technical good offices), dan jasa baik politis (political good offices). Jasa baik teknis adalah jasa baik oleh negara atau organisasi internasional dengan cara mengundang para pihak yang bersengketa ikut serta dalam konferensi atau menyelenggarakan konferensi. Tujuan dari jasa baik teknis ini adalah mengembalikan atau memelihara hubungan atau kontak langsung di antara para pihak yang bersengketa setelah hubungan diplomatik mereka terputus. Sedangkan jasa baik politis adalah jasa baik yang dilakukan oleh negara atau organisasi internasional yang berupaya menciptakan suatu perdamaian atau menghentikan suatu peperangan yang diikuti dengan diadakannya negosiasi atau suatu kompetensi.



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